Chinese Brush Painting Landscape Book 2 (How to Do Chinese Brush Painting)

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Next, a flanker trial was presented for 1 s. Trials were separated by a variable inter-trial-interval ITI of 1.

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After scanning, participants were instructed to rate the familiarity, complexity, and beauty levels of the paintings ranging from 1 very unfamiliar, very simple, and very ugly to 4 very familiar, very complex, and very beautiful. These ratings were done to ensure that the Chinese landscape paintings and realistic oil landscape were perceptually matched on familiarity, complexity, and beauty level across participants. Each participant took part in two functional scans. Each scan lasted about 12 min. Functional images were preprocessed using SPM8. For each participant, all functional scan volumes were corrected for motion artifacts.

The mean image was then co-registered to the high-resolution T1-weighted image. The estimated transformation parameter was applied to individuals to normalize all scan volumes to the stereotactic MNI space. The normalized scans were smoothed using an 8-mm full-width at the full-width half-maximum FWHM Gaussian kernel. Multiple regressors were used in order to overcome the potential slice-timing problem. According to previous research, the canonical HRF and its temporal derivative can efficiently detect differences in the latency of blood oxygenation level-dependent BOLD responses to brief events Friston et al.


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The GLM also included covariates of no interest session mean, motor response, false response, and their respective temporal derivatives. At the first level, analyses were performed individually for each participant and contrast images were subsequently entered into a second-level analysis treating participants as a random factor.

Each ROI i. Whole brain activation during the flanker task.


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  6. Mean parameter estimates in each brain area for each contrastare shown. Online behavioral data. Painting viewing. These results show that participants preferred the original paintings, Chinese or oil landscapes, more than the scrambled images. Note that the two stylistic variations on landscape paintings were liked equally—replicating the results of Experiment 1.

    It is not surprising that rating scrambled images required less time than rating landscape paintings because the latter are more likely to activate processes associated with recognition, reflection and awareness compared to processing randomly scrambled images.

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    Flanker task. It is worth reiterating that the RTs of each condition in the flanker task were included in the GLM of the fMRI data as a first-order parametric modulator. Post-scan behavioral data. This is likely because complexity, familiarity, and beauty are important qualities in both kinds of artworks Berlyne and Ogilvie, In addition, these post-scan ratings are broadly consistent with the findings of Experiment 1, which showed no difference in preference. One might be inclined to expect that Chinese participants should be more familiar with the traditional Chinese landscape paintings than realistic oil paintings.

    However, in order to make the stimuli comparable, the paintings used in the current study were chosen to be unfamiliar, and the two types of paintings were matched in terms of both content and motif. Furthermore, the participants had no previous training in art. Therefore, the familiarity of the two sets of paintings did not differ, and this was confirmed by the behavioral ratings of the participants.

    This non-significant result excluded the possibility of the confounding effects of familiarity on brain activation. Given that RTs were modeled in our analysis of fMRI data, we can rule out linear effects of this confounding variable explaining the imaging results reported below. Brain activity associated with cognitive control during the flanker task. We began our analysis by conducting a manipulation check, which involved comparing brain activity between incongruent and congruent flanker trials collapsed across painting type.

    Our aim was to identify brain regions associated with cognitive control. This result is consistent with previous studies Casey et al. TABLE 4. Stronger cognitive control during the incongruent flanker trials after appreciating traditional Chinese landscape paintings. Scrambled versions of each painting style were subtracted from the original versions to ensure that any activation observed reflected high-level cognitive differences as a result of viewing incongruent compared with congruent trials, and not simply low-level visual differences between the paintings e.

    Experiencing art is a multifaceted phenomenon, and not merely reflected by the experience of pleasure and reward. The calming effect of viewing certain artworks, like Chinese landscape paintings, as well as listening to certain forms of music, has long been recognized both phenomenologically and theoretically Cahill, ; Zong, ; Law, The present study was conducted to investigate if the calming effect induced by viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings would make disengagement from that mental state more difficult, as measured by performance on a cognitive control task.

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    Landscape painting

    In accordance with our a priori hypothesis, the results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that compared with realistic oil landscape paintings, traditional Chinese landscape paintings were associated with higher subjective ratings of relaxation and mind wandering, but lower ratings of object-oriented absorption and recognition.

    That is to say, when appreciating realistic oil landscape paintings, people might experience an attention-focusing mental state, during which they might pay more attention to the details of the painting content per se e. However, when appreciating traditional Chinese landscape paintings, people might experience a relatively greater mind-wandering mental state, during which they might become relaxed and tend to engage in mental states possibly unrelated to the painting content per se e.

    In other words, viewing certain artworks may inhibit the immediate shift from art appreciation to other, especially attention-demanding, cognitive tasks. However, the behavioral results of Experiment 2 did not support this prediction. Specifically, we did not observe that viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings compared with realistic oil landscape paintings impaired performance on the flanker task. In combination, our behavioral results suggest that although viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings effectively induces states of relaxation and mind wandering Experiment 1 , disengagement from that state in the service of an attentionally — and cognitively demanding task might not be any more difficult than disengaging from the mental state associated with object-oriented perception invoked by viewing realistic oil landscape paintings.

    Importantly, however, despite the absence of a behavioral effect of painting type on the flanker task, we did observe greater activation for incongruent compared with congruent trials in the SFG and IPC after viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings as opposed to realistic oil landscape paintings. For example, a large-scale meta-analysis of functional imaging studies isolated the IPC as an important hub in the fronto-parietal attention network Toro et al. In addition, neuropsychological studies of patients with focal brain lesions have shown the necessary role that left SFG plays in WM du Boisgueheneuc et al.

    In other words, the flanker task might have been too easy, and therefore not sensitive enough to measure the difference between different kinds of paintings. It is possible that, had the behavioral flanker task been harder, we might have observed a behavioral effect. Importantly, oftentimes behavioral and neural data do not precisely mirror each other, but this does not invalidate one set of data as compared with the other see Xu et al.

    Future studies involving a more difficult cognitive control task will be needed to test this possibility. One possibility is to use a modified version of the flanker task, where the perceptual features of the central target and flanking distracters are more difficult to discriminate. Another possibility is to use a Stroop task Stroop, , or a Navon-type task Navon, where global and local features of compound stimuli are discriminated. Both of those tasks contain congruent and incongruent trials that have clear differences in behavioral performance definitely in RT, perhaps also in accuracy.

    To date, studies in neuroesthetics have by and large focused on uncovering the neural correlates of viewing artworks. This study makes an important contribution to the field by examining how engagement with artworks affects subsequent cognitive performance. Thus, this work may ultimately improve our understanding of the ways in which esthetic engagement affects our future decisions Lebreton et al.

    Our results are consistent with the idea that viewing traditional Chinese landscape paintings facilitates relaxation and mind wandering Experiment 1.

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    However, contrary to our prediction, behavioral data demonstrated that disengagement from this mental state does not place greater demands on cognitive control, as measured by the flanker task Experiment 2. Building on the present results, this possibility can be tested directly in future studies. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Berlyne, D. Berlyne Washington, DC: Hemisphere , — Google Scholar. Blood, A. Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion.

    Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant music correlate with activity in paralimbic brain regions. Brown, S.

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    Passive music listening spontaneously engages limbic and paralimbic systems. Neuroreport 15, — Bunge, S. Dissociable contributions of prefrontal and parietal cortices to response selection. Neuroimage 17, — Cahill, J. Chinese Painting. Geneva: Skira. Calvo-Merino, B. Towards a sensorimotor aesthetics of performing art. Casey, B. Dissociation of response conflict, attentional selection, and expectancy with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Cela-Conde, C. Activation of the prefrontal cortex in the human visual aesthetic perception. Chan, W. A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. Cupchik, G. Viewing artworks: contributions of cognitive control and perceptual facilitation to aesthetic experience. Brain Cogn. Some are monochrome, and others are very brightly coloured. Some are made in the literati style, meaning that they tend to use expressionistic brushwork and were painted as an expression of personal creativity. Yu Fei'an China, , Vegetables.

    Then, you can focus on a few artists who work in that milieu, and get to know their works intimately. Pu Ru , Study with Grandson. It is believed that an evil person cannot make a fine work of art.

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    The vehicle through which an artist communicates is ultimately the brushwork. Are his or her strokes bold and sure, or are they nuanced and restrained? Did he or she use many strokes of different kinds, or just a few, brilliantly placed?