Порядок слов: Поэтическая библиотека (Russian Edition)
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From the mid, and for over three years Kupala wrote no poetry. The Revolution of and the Civil War, , gave birth to the motives condemning violence, anti-humanism, and class hatred. From January Kupala permanently lived in Minsk; for a time he worked as a librarian at the institution of the People's Commissariat of Education.
He continued to stay in Minsk during the Polish occupation August - July , and in early he endured a severe disease. After the Red Army came, he was an editor at various Belarusian publications, an assistant head at the literary publishing department of the People's Commissariat of Education, and contributed to the magazine Volny Stsiag Free Banner. In Kupala wrote many publicistic works. Kupala's vision was marked by democratism, anti-violence, and assertion of humanistic spiritual values.
At this time he also wrote some of his poems and translated "The Word about Igor's Regiment" and the workers' hymn "The Internationale".
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Between and Kupala actively participated in the literary, social and cultural life, in particular in the foundation of the Belarusian State University, the National Theatre, and several publishing houses, worked in the commission for establishing the Institute of Belarusian Culture. He was elected a full member of this Institute, which was reorganized into the Belarusian Academy of Sciences in He also headed a literary-art section of the scientific terminological commission at the People's Commissariat of Education. In and he was a technical editor at the Belarusian State Publishing House.
On June 10, the Council of People's Commissars of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic BSSR awarded Yanka Kupala, the first among Belarusian writers, the honorific title of the National Poet of Belarus, with a right to a lifelong pension and relieving him of all the positions in order to build favourable conditions for his creative work. From Kupala was a full member of the Belarusian Academy of Sciences; and from , of that of Ukraine. The book "Heritage", which included poetry written between October and December , appeared in print in The book was entitled after the programme philosophical-patriotic poem of the same name.
All the works are here linked by the thought about the destiny of the Belarusians at the turning point in history, showing the tragedy of the revolutionary events that brought new trials to the native land. The poetry book "The Unknown", which included verse written predominantly in , came out in The poem of the same name "The Unknown" deals with national construction in Belarus and the spiritual self-determination of the Belarusian people.
The book "Fading", with poetry written mainly before and in , was published in The tragicomedy "Tuteishiya" The Locals , written in , voices an idea of Belarusian national independence both from the West and from the East, denouncing opportunism and national nihilism in a high satirical form. In May , Zviazda The Star , the official organ of the Belarus Communist Party, issued an article in which Kupala was denounced as "an ideologist of bourgeois national rebirth".
Kupala's relatives were dispossessed of their property as kulaks better-off peasants , yet they avoided deportation to the North. In the summer of the same year Kupala was summoned to the GPU, or State Political Office, to be interrogated in the concocted case against the Union for the Liberation of Belarus, slated for the role of the leader of this mythical organization.
During the interrogation he showed fortitude and dignity, as was admitted even by the investigators, and declined the accusations against himself and the others. Persecution by the repressive organs and the poor psychological condition resulted in his attempting suicide on November 20, In December Zviazda published a so-called "letter of repentance", written, according to many researchers, from dictation, in which the poet was forced to accept his "mistakes" and "harmful looks", and in which he promised "to do his best for the socialist construction".
Later Kupala was repeatedly elected a member of the Central Executive Committee of the BSSR and a delegate to the BSSR Supreme Council and the Minsk Town Council; he was one of the editors of the BSSR Constitution text, participated in various committees for celebrations and commemoration of the classic authors of Russian and other national literatures, participated in many literary conferences and congresses.
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In May , he was elected to the Union of Soviet Writers. The impression was created that he actively participated in public life, yet this only served as a mask for the authorities to cover the policy of moral terror conducted by the Stalinist regime against Kupala. Kupala's literary activity slowed sharply and it was not until the mids it again revived, with the Liaukouski Cycle. As to the poems "Over the River Oressa" and "Barysau" , written in the style of socialist realism, their artistic value was not adequate to the poet's creative potential.
The collection of poetry "The Song of Construction", in which Kupala showed the process of construction of new forms of life, was published in Apart from these, in the s Kupala translated Pushkin's poem "The Bronze Horseman" and a number of poems and verses by T. In Kupala again found himself in the list of repression victims, but the local repressive organs, though they appealed to the higher authorities for his arrest, received no sanction. At the same time simultaneously, in January , Kupala was decorated with the Order of Lenin.
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In October the same year he attended, with the group of Belarusian writers, the People's Congress of Western Belarus, which adopted the declaration for the inclusion of Western Belarus into the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic. In his poetry and publicistic writings of that time he called for struggle against the Nazis and expressed confidence in the victory over the enemy. The articles with the poet's signature were posted in the newspapers Pravda, Izvestiya, Krasnaia Zvezda, and the like.
Kupala was a presidium member of the Pan-Slavic Anti-Fascist Committee, and took part in various public actions against the invaders. In June he left for Moscow to participate in the celebration of his 60th birth anniversary.
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On 28 June he tragically died in unexplained circumstances, having fallen into the staircase opening at the 10th floor of Hotel Moskva. In the urn with the poet's ashes was taken to Minsk to be buried at Military Cemetery. Yanka Kupala's life was full of trial and hardships. Yet his high virtues of a man, citizen and artist--honesty, humanism, love to his people and his native land, allegiance to the main idea of his life, that is the national, social and spiritual liberation of all people, artistically reflected in his works--these remained unchanged and unquestioned in the course of time.
Kupala ranks among the greatest writers of world literature, who are destined to deeply cognise their time, people and history, and express this in a sparkling manner peculiar to them alone. One cannot but agree with the Belarusian literary critic who told of Kupala's work in the following words, "Kupala's creative output is a chronicle of life of the Belarusian people, reflecting their ideology and poetic vision at the turning points in the history of the first half of the twentieth century.
It is remarkable for deep national character and artistic originality. Tvardovski's vision of Yanka Kupala is also very accurate, "A lyric of striking talent, the Belarusian bard, who expressively revealed the soul of his country and whose poetic nature represented the creative power of his people.
The sonorous adjectives that are often heard in reference to Kupala as a great people's poet, a prophet of national rebirth, and even founder of the nation are proved to be quite appropriate here. Kupala ranks among those prominent writers whose works, being of perpetual value, make up the classics of national and world culture. Kupala's work and his role in the national rebirth of Belarus have been highly evaluated by his descendants. His literary legacy is studied by a special field in Belarusian literary studies known as Kupalaznaustva Studies of Yanka Kupala.
His works were repeatedly issued in single editions. The collections of his works were published in in six volumes; the first ever collection of volumes in the history of Belarusian literature , four volumes , six , six , seven , nine. Many of Kupala's verses and poems are included in school curriculum in Belarusian literature. In the years the Kupala Literary Prize was awarded for works of poetry and drama; and from , the Kupala State Prize of Belarus.
In Minsk there is the Yanka Kupala State Literature Museum, which has four branches: the "Akopy" in Lagoisk district, the "Yakhimaushchyna" in Maladzechna district, the Kupala Memorial Reserve "Viazynka", where the traditional Kupala festivals of poetry are held each year, and the "Liauki" in Orsha district. The poet's name is attached to the Literary Institute of the Belarusian Academy of Sciences, the National Academic Theatre in Minsk, the University of Grodno, a village in the Glusk district, a village in the Pukhavichi district, a number of collective farms, libraries, schools and streets in many towns and villages throughout Belarus.
Yanka Kupala has been extensively portrayed in art. Many sculptural, musical and cinematographic works, paintings, and poetic pieces are dedicated to the poet.
The commemorative plaques are attached to the houses in which Kupala lived at different time - in Liauki Orsha district , Viazynka and Yakhimaushchyna Maladzechna district , the villages of Sennitsa Minsk district , Staraia Belitsa Senno district , Bialaruchi and Kosina Lagoisk district , in the towns of Marian Gorka, Barysau, Maladzechna, and Kapyl. A number of paintings dedicated to the poet's personality and work were assembled in the album "Yanka Kupala in the works of Belarusian artists". Many art exhibitions were dedicated to the poet's jubilee dates.
A commemorative coin was released specifically on his th birth anniversary. The composer V. Pomazau produced the vocal symphony "Yanka Kupala".
Kupala's works have inspired many composers. Churkin produced the opera "The Ravaged Nest". Pukst and the symphony "Poem-Legend" by Ya. Log In Sign Up. Ancient Indo-European Languages. Reported speech forms a dedicated syntactic domain. Save to Library Download Edit. Across Africa, linguistic techniques that are closely associated with traditional genres are vuln Their loss accounts for the discrepancy between professional linguist's assessment and the speakers' perception of the vitality of the language.
Such strategies include morphosyntactic means that allow the storyteller to manage a complex narrative without resorting to explicit lexical encoding or multiplying the number of sentences. In spite of the growing body of research on frames of spatial reference, a number of important qu This study explores reference frame use in Bashkir, based on a linguistic matching task and a nonverbal task.
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In the linguistic task, speakers relied freely on intrinsic and relative frames. In intrinsic descriptions, two different kinds of mapping were attested: a mapping based on the Ground's function, and a mapping based on the Ground's shape. Several factors were identified that affect the choice of linguistic description, including lexical choice, the chair's orientation with respect to the viewer, and the speaker's age.
Interference from Russian was not a significant factor. The repair strategies speakers used when encountering misunderstanding suggest that they were not aware of the source of their difficulties. A number of previous studies reported, for different languages, a correlation between reference frame use in linguistic and nonlinguistic tasks, supporting the linguistic relativity hypothesis. The data from Bashkir shows no such correlation: nonverbal coding strategies did not correspond to the same individual's linguistic strategies, but correlated with the use of Russian in linguistic descriptions.
I interpret this finding tentatively as pointing toward a mediated relationship between spatial cognition and language. Verb phrase external arguments in Mande: New evidence for obligatory extraposition. Mande languages are well-known for their rigid SOVX word order: verb phrases cannot accommodate p This study explores, based on data from Wan Southeastern Mande , new evidence for syntactic constituency that is essential for developing a formal account of this typologically unusual pattern.